The territory


ORVIETO



In the IX-VIII sec. B.C. The Orvieto cliff was inhabited for the first time by Etruscan populations. This settlement was identified with the Etruscan center of Velzna (in Latin Volsinii), a thriving city since the beginning of the 6th century. B.C. The Orvietan boulder dedicated to the cult of the main national deity and perhaps of the entire Etruscan pantheon, was divided into neighborhoods by the two sacramental streets: thistle and decuman.
The Decumanus (West-East) had on its path to West Gate Major and the primitive cut of the boulder, the Cava, and East Porta Soliana, now hidden beneath the Rocca where a temple stood, which was called Augurale by archeology . On the thistle (North-South) were Porta Vivaria in the North and Porta S. Maria in the South. The names are relatively modern, but the existence of the doors is very ancient. Among the existing temples and found again the most "heated" debate is about the identification and location of Fanum Voltumnae,
that the most recent criticism comes today in Orvieto and probably in the western area of ​​the cliff.
What did Velzna / Volsinii mean in our ancient history? Livio will count amongst the strongest of Etruria; Pliny called her opulent: Valerio Massimo, a supporter of costumes and legislation, the leader of the Etruscans; I am the most civilian among all the cities of the Tuscan confederation. Volsinii waged war against Rome in 280 BC and was forced to surrender his weapons to the Tito Coruncanio console. Drawing on Roman power, Volsinii made immense resistance efforts; But after the revolt of the servants against the nobles, the Romans destroyed the city under the consul Fulvio FIacco (3rd century BC). "Last fell among all the Italic peoples: looted, destroyed and destroyed, of his statues, two thousand They were gone away from the winners. "
With Volsinii perished the Etruscan nation, already master of the sea and the heart of Italy. The destruction of the city followed the deportation of the inhabitants, who largely were forced to relocate to the highlands overlooking the Lake of Bolsena, giving rise to new Volsinii. In this era also seems the name of the city: in fact become Velzna Volsinii Veteres or Vetus Urbs (old city) as opposed Volsinii-nine, today's Bolsena.
When even the Roman Empire will come an irreversible crisis (third century A.D.) and Volsinii will again be invaded and devastated (V-VI century A.D.), the ruined cities will in turn abandoned by residents who returned to occupy the cliff of Orvieto. He later became Longobard. In 596 Orvieto was occupied by longobardo Agilulfo and had his own bishop and later, in 606, his own accounts. In the 11th century Orvieto was established in the municipality. Shortly before the year thousand the city returned to flourish again expanding its urban structure by building fortifications, towers, churches and palaces.

VOLSINII (ORVIETO) THE ANCIENT CAPITAL OF THE ETRUSCAN COUNTRY

Pliny called her opulent: Valerio Massimo, anxious, dressed in costumes and legislation, head of the Etruscans; I am the most civilian among all the cities of the Tuscan confederation.
The Etruscans originally occupied the area between the Tiber and Arno, which they named Tuscany. The period of maximum splendor came to the 4th century BC Later, they were absorbed by the Romans, with Volsinii (Orvieto) the last city to withstand.
Among the ancient peoples of pre-Italian Italy, the Etruscans are the ones who have attracted most the interest of modernists to the highest level of artistic achievement and the lack of knowledge of their language, which does not offer contact points with any other known ...
Already the ancient people were unable to explain the presence of this powerful and sophisticated people in the fragmented and often crude landscape of the people of pre-Hispanic Italy. The historian Herodotus, who wrote in the 5th century BC, attributed the origin of the Tirrenos (so the Greeks called the Etruscans) to a mythical founder, Tirreno, who would move to central Italy after escaping from a remote region of ' Asia Minor. On the contrary, Dionysius of Alicarnasso, another Greek author who wrote in the 1st century BC, attributed Etruscans to Italic origin.
Finally, the Latin historian Tito Livio, contemporaneous to Dionysius, thought he could support a northern origin of the Etruscans, who would come to Italy from Central Europe. Today we know a lot more about the origins of that people. The Etruscan civilization derives directly from the Villanovian that is spread throughout the Iron Age (9th to 8th century BC) in the areas that will see the Etruscan civilization flourish. The remnants of this civilization, coming from the Etruscan, especially from tombs and necropolises, testify to the strong influences of the northern populations, especially Celtic (Celts), which will also be found in Etruscan art, especially in the oldest periods. > Subsequently, starting from the 8th century BC, we begin to notice

a change in the artifacts from those regions and there is a gradual transition to that kind of art characterized by strong and obvious Greek influences.
The Etruscans, therefore, can be defined as the Villanoviani successors, permeated by the influence of Greek art, which came to Etruria from Magna Grecia. Although being an Italian culture, the Etruscan culture is a civilization strongly influenced by oriental influences, particularly Greek. The social structure prevailing among the Etruscans was the city, which had social and architectural features in many respects similar to those of Greek cities, in particular the great accuracy with which the doors of the defensive walls were decorated in large square stones.
Like the Greek cities of Magna Grecia, the Etruscan cities were linked together in leagues: of particular importance, because they were passed from the sources, the one that gathered the twelve cities of Velzna or Volsinii (ORVIETO), Vulci, Volterra, Veio, Vetulonia, Arezzo , Perugia, Cortona, Tarquinia, Cere, Chiusi, Roselle.

THE BEAUTY

Kalón means everything he likes, which gives rise to admiration, which attracts his gaze. Beauty is almost always associated with other qualities. B Hymen (Cadmus Wedding and Harmony): "Who is beautiful is dear, who is not beautiful is not dear." The Delphi oracle, on the question of Beauty's evaluation criterion, replies: "The most just is the most beautiful."
According to mythology, Zeus would have assigned an appropriate measure and a proper limit to every being: The world's government thus coincides with a precise and measurable harmony, expressed in the four mots written on the walls of the Temple of Delphi: "The fairest is the most beautiful", "Looks at the limit", "It hates the hybris," "Nothing in excess."
On these rules is based the common Greek sense of Beauty, in accordance with a vision of the world that interprets order and harmony as the one that sets a limit to the "yawning Chaos", from whose throat came forth, according to Hesiod, world.

LUCA SIGNORELLI (CORTONA 1445- IVI 1523)

Luca Signorelli was among the Renaissance artists most committed to the representation of a scientifically rational space. It was formed as confirmed by the scarcely historical fragments in the provincial Umbrian environment and his works are affected by the prospective spatiality of Piero Della Francesca, who was probably a pupil in his stay in Perugia and Urbino.
Fundamentals for the artist were however the stimuli of the Florentine artistic culture during which the figures were loaded with chiaroscuros and plastic effects, reaching the balance between the masses and their insertion into space: this period is remembered as "the Flagellation" (Milan , Brera), and "circumcision" (London, National Gallery).
In 1482 he was in Rome, active in the Sistine Chapel, performing the box where Moses handed the rod to Joshua and Moses' death. In the following years Signorelli's style is defined in its original characteristics, from the compositional scheme to the use of color and light as a function of the definition of volumes in space,
as it appears, for example, in the bend of the Perugia Cathedral (1484), the round of the Madonna with Child and naked in the background (1490-95, Florence, Uffizi) and Pan Education (already in Berlin, destroyed in second World War).
The Signorelli's creative vein found a happy expression in the technique of fresco: a predominantly narrative character has the Stories of St. Benedict of the great cloister of the abbey of Monteoliveto Maggiore (1497-98), while in the last phase his art suffers A strong dramatic and expressionist accentuation, evident in the famous cycle of frescoes with the Universal Judgment of the Chapel of S. Brizio in the Cathedral of Orvieto (1499-1503), where are painted, inter alia, Stories of the Antichrist, Resurrection of the flesh , Hell, Paradise, and various figurations drawn from the Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri. Numerous drawings of Signorelli's figure, of great quality, are preserved at the Louvre and the Uffizi of Florence.

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